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Students will be required in this unit to identify the difference between a physical state change (solid, liquid and gas) and a chemical change (where new products are formed).They will explore different chemical reactions and notice ways in which they can identify whether a change is chemical. They will learn to write chemical word equations and how they can predict the products formed by identifying patterns in reactivity. They will recognise for example that when an acid reacts with a metal they will always get a salt and hydrogen gas forming. They will then be required to use and apply this knowledge in the work we cover.

Learning targets

McREL: Science, McREL: Level III (Grades 6-8) , Physical Sciences

Standard 8. Understands the structure and properties of matter

  1. Knows that matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms, and different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances
  2. Knows that atoms often combine to form a molecule (or crystal), the smallest particle of a substance that retains its properties
  3. Knows that states of matter depend on molecular arrangement and motion (e.g., molecules in solids are packed tightly together and their movement is restricted to vibrations; molecules in liquids are loosely packed and move easily past each other; molecules in gases are quite far apart and move about freely)
  4. Knows that substances containing only one kind of atom are elements and do not break down by normal laboratory reactions (e.g., heating, exposure to electric current, reaction with acids); over 100 different elements exist
  5. Knows that many elements can be grouped according to similar properties (e.g., highly reactive metals, less-reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals, almost completely nonreactive gases)
  6. Understands the conservation of mass in physical and chemical change (e.g., no matter how substances within a closed system interact with one another, the total weight of the system remains the same; the same number of atoms of a single element weighs the same, no matter how the atoms are arranged)
  7. Knows methods used to separate mixtures into their component parts (boiling, filtering, chromatography, screening)
  8. Knows that substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties
  9. Knows factors that influence reaction rates (e.g., types of substances involved, temperature, concentration of reactant molecules, amount of contact between reactant molecules)
  10. Knows that oxidation is the loss of electrons, and commonly involves the combining of oxygen with another substance (e.g., the processes of burning and rusting)

Standard 9. Understands the sources and properties of energy

  1. Knows that energy is a property of many substances (e.g., heat energy is in the disorderly motion of molecules and in radiation; chemical energy is in the arrangement of atoms; mechanical energy is in moving bodies or in elastically distorted shapes; electrical energy is in the attraction or repulsion between charges)
  2. Knows that heat energy flows from warmer materials or regions to cooler ones through conduction, convection, and radiation
  3. Knows how the Sun acts as a major source of energy for changes on the Earth's surface (i.e., the Sun loses energy by emitting light; some of this light is transferred to the Earth in a range of wavelengths including visible light, infrared radiation, and ultraviolet radiation)
  4. Knows that electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy to produce heat, light, sound, and chemical changes
  5. Knows that most chemical and nuclear reactions involve a transfer of energy (e.g., heat, light, mechanical motion, electricity)
  6. Knows that vibrations (e.g., sounds, earthquakes) move at different speeds in different materials, have different wavelengths, and set up wave-like disturbances that spread away from the source
  7. Knows ways in which light interacts with matter (e.g., transmission, including refraction; absorption; scattering, including reflection)
  8. Knows that only a narrow range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation can be seen by the human eye; differences of wavelength within that range of visible light are perceived as differences in color

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