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In this unit, students will learn the reproduction of plants by identifying the reproductive structures needed for pollination and fertilization to take place. For example, anther, filament, stigma, style, ovary and ovules. Identification and labeling of a wind and insect pollinated flower will be taught. Students will then need to understand the post-fertilization changes that takes place in a flower and discuss the importance of seed dispersal. An investigation on the factors needed for seed germination to take place may occur. Sstudents will be taught the structures of the human male and female reproductive system. They will need to be able to label and identify the functions of each structure for reproduction. Students will need to understand that a sperm and an egg is required for fertilization and from there discuss the process of fertilization and development of the fetus in the uterus. A matured egg is developed in the ovaries and involves the knowledge of the menstrual cycle. Students will need to be able to label a diagram of a developing fetus in the uterus and explain the importance of the amniotic sac and fluid, placenta and umbilical cord for exchange of substances between the fetus and the mother. Students will then be lead to be able to outline the process of birth and the possible harmful chemicals that may affect a fetus’s development. The area of sexually transmitted diseases, how to reduce transmission of STDs and the importance of family planning will be discussed.

Learning targets

Asexual reproduction

  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to a species of asexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction in plants

  • Define sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to a species of sexual reproduction
  • Identify and draw, using a hand lens if necessary, the sepals, petals, stamens, anthers, carpels, ovaries and stigmas of one, locally available, named, insect-pollinated, dicotyledonous flower, and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs
  • State the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers, stigmas and ovaries
  • Use a hand lens to identify and describe the anthers and stigmas of one, locally available, named, wind-pollinated flower, and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs
  • Candidates should expect to apply their understanding of the flowers they have studied to unfamiliar flowers
  • Define pollination as the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma)
  • Name the agents of pollination
  • Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated and wind-pollinated flowers
  • Describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule followed by fertilisation (production of endosperm and details of development are not required)
  • Investigate and describe the structure of a non-endospermic seed in terms of the embryo (radicle, plumule and cotyledons) and testa, protected by the fruit
  • Outline the formation of a seed (limited to embryo, cotyledons, testa and role of mitosis) and fruit (produced from the ovary wall)
  • State that seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals provides a means of colonizing new areas
  • Describe, using named examples, seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals
  • Distinguish between self-pollination and cross-pollination
  • Discuss the implications to a species of self-pollination and cross-pollination

Sexual reproduction in humans

  • Identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system, the testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis, and state the functions of these parts
  • Identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system, the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the functions of these parts
  • Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of changes in the uterus and ovaries
  • Outline sexual intercourse and describe fertilization in terms of the joining of the nuclei of male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg)
  • Outline early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of a ball of cells that becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus
  • Outline the development of the fetus
  • Describe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory products (no structural details are required)
  • Describe the ante-natal care of pregnant women including special dietary needs and maintaining good health
  • Outline the processes involved in labor and birth
  • Compare male and female gametes in terms of size, numbers and mobility
  • Explain the role of hormones in controlling the menstrual cycle (including FSH, LH, progesterone and oestrogen)
  • Indicate the functions of the amniotic sac and amniotic fluid
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of breast-feeding compared with bottle-feeding using formula milk

Sex hormones

  • Describe the roles of testosterone and estrogen in the development and regulation of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty
  • Describe the sites of production and the roles of estrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy

Methods of birth control Core

  • Outline the following methods of birth control:


    Discuss the different approaches to sexuality and family planing that make us Unique Individuals.

    • natural (abstinence, rhythm method)
    • chemical (contraceptive pill, spermicide)
    • mechanical (condom, diaphragm, femidom, IUD)
    • surgical (vasectomy, female sterilisation)
  • Outline artificial insemination and the use of hormones in fertility drugs, and discuss their social implications

Sexually transmissible diseases

    • Describe the symptoms, signs, effects and treatment of gonorrhoea
    • Describe the methods of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the ways in which HIV/AIDS can be prevented from spreading


Discuss the influence of one's deeds in terms of being a sexually active Moral Citizen.

  • Outline how HIV affects the immune system in a person with HIV/AIDS

Growth and development Core

  • Define growth in terms of a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both
  • Define development in terms of increase in complexity
  • Investigate and state the environmental conditions that affect germination of seeds: requirement for water and oxygen, suitable temperature

Presentation media

Labs and activities

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