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In this unit, students will be taught to define and differentiate some important genetic terms like genes, alleles, genotype, phenotype, heterozygous, sex linkage, monohybrid cross, etc. Students will use the knowledge of these terms to predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring of monohybrid crosses involving colour blindness, hemophilia and any other traits. Students will also learn what gene mutation is and using sickle cell anemia as an example to explain the consequences of a base substitution mutation. Understanding the process of meiosis will also be taught and students will be able to understand how homologous chromosomes cross over and form 4 haploid cells. Students will need to state what karyotyping is and be familiar with the arrangements of the chromosomes to identify gender of baby or any genetic disorders. Lastly, students will progress on to discuss the use of PCR and gel electrophoresis in DNA profiling , the outcome of the human genome project, basic gene transfer technique involving plasmids and enzymes and discuss the ethical issues on genetically modified food and cloning.

Essential idea

Every living organism inherits a blueprint for life from its parents.


  1. Genes
  2. Chromosomes
  3. Meiosis
  4. Inheritance
  5. Genetic modification and biotechnology

The detailed curriculum can be consulted here.

Learning resources

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