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In this large unit, students will be focusing on the chemical elements and properties of water. Simple experiments will be done to show the interesting properties of water like – surface tension and high heat capacity. Students will also learn the chemical make-up of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, identifying the structural differences between the nutrients, sources and functions. The process of condensation and hydrolysis will be introduced where students need to understand how molecules can be formed or broken down chemically. Students will learn about the biochemical pathways in respiration and photosynthesis. Students will then move on do understand the structure of DNA, the nucleotides needed to make up DNA and to draw a simple diagram of the DNA. Lastly, students will cover the central dogma of Biology which is Protein Synthesis involving the replication, transcription and translation process.

Essential idea

Living organisms control their composition by a complex web of chemical reactions.


  1. Molecules to metabolism
  2. Water
  3. Carbohydrates and lipids
  4. Proteins
  5. Enzymes
  6. Structure of DNA and RNA
  7. DNA replication, transcription and translation
  8. Cell respiration
  9. Photosynthesis

The detailed curriculum can be consulted here.

Learning resources

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