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This unit will cover various aspects of Organic Chemistry. Particular emphasis will be placed on using deductive reasoning to predict the properties and behaviour of the different organic materials based on their electron distribution.

Essential idea

Many reactions are reversible. These reactions will reach a state of equilibrium when the rates of the forward and reverse reaction are equal. The position of equilibrium can be controlled by changing the conditions.

Learning Targets

Topic 10 Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry and Functional Group Chemistry

10 Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry and Functional Group Chemistry

SMEO

Moral Citizens - Ethical implications of using organic compounds (drugs, pesticides, food additives)

  • Describe the features of a homologous series
  • Identification of classes (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, amines, amides, nitriles and arenes)
  • Identification of functional groups
  • Construction of 3D models (link between written structure and 3 representation)
  • Be able to name linear and branched chain isomers using IUPAC rules
  • Be able to use primary, secondary and tertiary notation in respect to halogenoalkanes, alcohols and amines
  • Describe and provide evidence for the structure of benzene
  • Representation of organic molecules using skeletal formulae
  • Describe the features of a homologous series
  • Predict and explain the trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series
  • Distinguish between empirical, molecular and structural formulas

Alkanes

  • Explain the low reactivity of alkanes in terms of bond enthalpies and bond polarity
  • Describe, using equations, the complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes
  • Describe, using equations, the reactions of alkanes with halogens
  • Explain the reactions of alkanes with halogens in terms of a free-radical mechanism

Alkenes

  • Describe, using equations, the reactions of alkenes with hydrogen and halogens
  • Describe, using equations, the reactions of symmetrical alkenes with hydrogen halides and water
  • Distinguish between alkanes and alkenes using bromine water
  • Outline the polymerization of alkenes
  • Outline the economic importance of the reactions of alkenes

Alcohols

  • Describe, using equations, the complete combustion of alcohols
  • Describe, using equations, the oxidation reactions of alcohols
  • Determine the products formed by the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols
  • Describe, using equations, the condensation (esterification) reactions of alcohols with carboxylic acids

Halogenoalkanes

  • Describe, using equations, the nucleophilic substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes with aqueous sodium hydroxide.

Benzene

  • Understand why benzene does NOT readily undergo addition reactions
  • Describe, using equations, the electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene

Topic 20: Organic chemistry (12 hours) - HL only

SMEO

Moral Citizens - Appreciation for the importance of natural products has gradually evolved not just in our lifetimes but over many lifetimes.

20.1 Types of organic reaction

Mechanisms and characteristics of nucleophilic substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes.

  • Explain why the hydroxide ion is a better nucleophile than water
  • Describe and explain how the rate of nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes by the hydroxide ion depends on the identity of the halogen.
  • Describe and explain how the rate of nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes by the hydroxide ion depends on whether the halogenoalkane is primary, secondary or tertiary
  • Describe the effect of using different solvents

Mechanisms and characteristics of electrophilic addition reactions for alkenes with halogens, interhalogens and hydrogen halides.

  • Describe and explain the mechanism of reaction
  • Can use the Markovnikov Rule to predict and explain the major product in addition to an asymmetric alkene.

Mechanisms and characteristics of electrophilic substitution of benzene

  • Describe and explain the conditions and mechanism for the nitration of benzene

Reduction reactions

  • Describe the conditions and write chemical equations for the reduction of carbonyl containing compounds using suitable reducing agents
  • Describe the conditions and write chemical equations for the conversion of nitrobenzene to phenylamine

20.2 Synthetic routes

  • Deduce synthetic routes to an organic compound from readily available starting materials with up to four steps
  • Understand and apply the concept of retro-synthesis

20.3 Stereoisomerism

  • Describe stereoisomers as compounds with the same structural formula but with different arrangements of atoms in space
  • Understand and explain the terms configurational isomer, cis/trans and E/Z isomerism, optical isomerism and conformational isomerism
  • Can identify the different types of isomer and their properties

The detailed curriculum can be consulted here.

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