In this unit, students learn about the factors that affect chemical systems in equilibrium. Material covered includes Dynamic equilibrium and the position of equilibrium, liquid - vapour equilibrium, the equilibrium law.
Many reactions are reversible. These reactions will reach a state of equilibrium when the rates of the forward and reverse reaction are equal. The position of equilibrium can be controlled by changing the conditions.
Life-Long Learners - Careful observation and recognition of patterns of behavior allows us to make predictions about the behavior of the natural world.
Topic 7: Equilibrium (5 hours)
7.1 Dynamic equilibrium
- Outline the characteristics of chemical and physical systems in a state of equilibrium.
The position of equilibrium
- Deduce the equilibrium constant expression (Kc) from the equation for a homogeneous reaction
- Deduce the extent of a reaction from the magnitude of the equilibrium constant
- Apply Le Chatelier’s principle to predict the qualitative effects of changes of temperature, pressure and concentration on the position of equilibrium and on the value of the equilibrium constant
- State and explain the effect of a catalyst on an equilibrium reaction
- Apply the concepts of kinetics and equilibrium to industrial processes
Topic 17: Equilibrium (HL Students only)
17.1 Liquid–vapour equilibrium
- Describe the equilibrium established between a liquid and its own vapour and how it is affected by temperature changes
- Sketch graphs showing the relationship between vapour pressure and temperature and explain them in terms of the kinetic theory
- State and explain the relationship between enthalpy of vaporization, boiling point and intermolecular forces
16.2 Reaction mechanism
- Explain that reactions can occur by more than one step and that the slowest step determines the rate of reaction (rate-determining step)
- Describe the relationship between reaction mechanism, order of reaction and rate-determining step
17.2 The equilibrium law
- Solve homogeneous equilibrium problems using the expression for Kc
The detailed curriculum can be consulted here.